CARE OF PUPPIES
Vaccinations – On receiving your puppy at 14 weeks it will need a series of at least two more inoculations given 2 weeks and one month apart also rabies and micro-chipping given on its own and not with the other inoculations. It is best to wait at least two months after the combined shots before giving the rabies serum. Also, do not place your puppy on the ground in public areas until they have received their full series of puppy vaccinations. He will need boosters every year to keep him immune from the many infectious diseases that are often fatal.
Teeth – Teeth in toy dogs especially Maltese can often be a problem in later life and your puppy should be accustomed to cleaning of teeth regularly from an early age. Teeth of mature dogs must be kept free of tarter, which destroys gums and teeth prematurely and can cause other heath related problems which can be fatal. Accustom your Maltese to eating hard biscuits, which will aid in preventing tarter. Mix equal parts of baking soda and salt, pure coconut oil warmed to make liquid. Mix and put into a small container. Using a doggie toothbrush clean the teeth and gums with this mixture to help eliminate tartar and keep gums healthy. Do not use toothpaste for humans. If necessary professional teeth cleaning should be done by your veterinarian of which your dog is anesthetized for this procedure, which always carries some risk so is better to accustom your dog to having his teeth cleaned and free from tartar at an early age. Cleaning can also be done by yourself with a dental scraper, but ask your veterinarian or dentist to show you how to use it properly.
Ears – For protection from infection, ear mites, etc., ears should be kept clean and free of excess hair on which ear wax can gather. Place ear powder in each ear. It is not only an antiseptic, but it also helps to deaden the feeling. Plucking the hair can be done by using finger and thumb or eyebrow tweezers, but preferably, use your thumb and forefinger and grasp a few hairs and pluck them out.
Parasites – Your dog should always be checked for external parasites. An indication of fleas apart from scratching is the tale tale flea dirts resembling tiny black grit. This can be treated with Frontline spray obtainable from your veterinarian. From March to October your dog should have Advantix drops placed on the neck every month to deter the sand fly which causes Leishmania, a parasitic disease spread by the bite from the sand fly. This disease if undetected can be fatal. Ticks can be removed by applying alcohol to the tick and removed with special tick tweezers being especially careful the head of the tick is not left in the skin and afterwards the area cleaned with antiseptic.
Toe Nails -need to be kept closely clipped at all times. They should be clipped just after a bath while the nails are soft. Clip just at the clear ends of the nail and do not clip into “quick” which is the pink area in the nail as this is painful for the dog. Don’t forget the dew claws on the inside front paws if they haven’t been removed. If you are afraid to do this, a quick trip to your veterinarian or local groomer will be able to show you. It’s a very easy task. Hair in the pads on the bottom of the foot should be trimmed off to insure good footing and not to allow the hair to collect dirt, mud that can then become uncomfortable and even make your dog lame..
Worming – This should be carried out every 3 months with treatment obtained from your veterinarian.
Facial Staining – All dogs can tear stain, but the Maltese having its white hair will sometimes become unsightly with a reddish-brown stain if not attended to. To prevent these unsightly stains, you must pay particular attention to the eyes and face. Clean the eyes and surrounding area every day using a saline solution. If there is any sign of yellow or green discharge you must take him to the veterinarian as this is a sign of infection. Keep all hair away from the eyes as it will cause irritation and cause excessive tearing. Teething, excitement and stress can also cause excessive tearing. Stay away from foods with a lot of dye in them. http://malteseonly.com/teartonia.html
Tear Stain remover– For unsightly eye-stain, mix equal parts cornstarch, milk of magnesia and medicinal 1% peroxide into a paste. Apply mixture to eye stained hair everyday. After the mixture has dried, which takes a couple of hours crumble it out very carefully to avoid breaking the hair? You can use a hair conditioner to soften the mixture to remove it easier. Comb facial hair then apply more Tear Stain remover. Every couple of days, apply a hair conditioner such as Wella Kolestral, to condition the hair and keep it from drying out. This method will remove most stains within 10 days, stubborn stains may take longer. (Store the mixture in a covered jar, leaving approximately 2 inches head space.)
Puppy Coat Care – A good quality metal pin brush without balls on the end should be used such as a Madden or 1 All Systems and good quality steel comb again Madden who also do a nice tail comb for dealing with the top knot. Grooming your dog every day will not take much time but will be most beneficial for all concerned allowing the dog to get used this daily procedure and keep the coat free from matts paying special attention to under arms, inside legs, feet and ears. Never groom the coat dry always using a spray on leave in hair conditioner or similar to avoid breakage. If you prefer you can have the puppy clipped and kept in a puppy cut but he will still need regular maintenance by yourself. Always check around the anus making sure no faeces are caught up in the coat which can cause a blockage and have fatal consequences if left unchecked. In order not to put more stress on your new puppy, it is better not to bathe your puppy for at least one week after the puppy has been brought to a new home to let him settle in first to his new surroundings. Try to make bath time a pleasant experience for the puppy as it will be easier for both of you now and into the future. Most puppies do not like their first bath times and they need to be made to feel secure and happy at this time. You should not bath your puppy too often as otherwise will dry out the coat and skin too much. About every 7-10 days is sufficient unless the puppy has gotton something on him that needs immediate attention. Your puppy is small enough to be bathed in the Kitchen sink which will save your back leaning over the bath. Place a rubber mat or towel in the sink to stop the puppy sliding and therefore making him feel more secure. Fill the sink with warm water and place about 50ml 1 All Systems Shampoo or shampoo of your choice into the water. Place cotton wool into the ears to stop water getting into them. Gently place the puppy into the water and pour the water over the puppy. To wet the head you can use a cloth so as not to get any water/shampoo in the puppy’s eyes, nose or mouth. To wash the face apply a tearless shampoo such as baby shampoo diluted 50% into an applicator bottle. Continue pouring the water/shampoo through the coat for several minutes. Empty the water out of the sink whilst holding the puppy so as not to frighten it and then rinse thoroughly ensuring no residue is left in the coat which can cause dry skin and itching. Fill the sink again with warm water and add about 50ml 1 All Systems Protein lotion Conditioner or Conditioner of your choice. Place Puppy in the solution pouring over the coat for a couple of minutes. Empty the sink and rinse puppy thoroughly ensuring all traces of conditioner or gone. Wrap Puppy in a warm towel and pat dry. Leave him in the towel for about 10 minutes before drying. Remove cotton wool from ears. Dry on a warm medium setting dryer brushing the hair constantly. Throughout the procedure talk to your puppy and praise him giving him a little treat at the end
Puppy Feeding Instructions
1. A young puppy should be fed little and often. Their stomachs are too small to hold enough food at a single meal to sustain the proper level of nutrition for their full growth and proper development. I feed a reasonably low protein all-in-one meal that is moistened with warm vegetable stock. This then has extra protein added in the form of a wet food such as meat or fish. All my dogs have hard dry food to crunch every day. Puppy food should be fed for the first year. I also cook chicken, rice and carrots. Good quality pet foods are usually available from your veterinarian and not usually available at the supermarket. Consult your veterinarian before adding any supplements to your dog’s diet.
WET MIXTURE: First I boil one whole chicken covered in water slowly for 3 hours after which I remove all meat of the bones placing back in the water. I add 250 Gms rice and cook again until rice is cooked. At the end of cooking adding 250 Gms finely chopped carrot. When cooled can be bagged and frozen. Now mix about ¼ cup of the complete dry puppy food and cover in vegetable stock or water until soft then mix with about one to two (1-2) teaspoons of the chicken mixture. Again, the amounts will vary a little depending on the age, appetite and size of the dog. Feed this mixture in a flat dish as it allows the dog to eat without getting food in their whiskers and facial hair – encouraging the naturally clean nature of the Maltese.
If you desire to change his diet, do so gradually by mixing the new diet with the one his system is already accustomed to. Gradually, over a one (1) month period, increase the new diet while phasing out the old. Doing this will eliminate digestive changes, which can cause diarrhea or constipation. Avoid the temptation of giving your puppy scraps from your plate. This will begin the habit of begging as well as grabbing food out of unsuspecting hands, such as a child’s. Table scraps should not be offered. While they are tasty, table scraps are not nutritionally complete, may give your puppy diarrhea, and will make your puppy a “picky eater”. Do not give them fresh milk as milk usually causes diarrhea. Older puppies and dogs do not need milk. Also, do not feed raw egg whites. Cottage cheese and scrambled eggs may be given on occasion. Be careful regarding the size of the complete dried food you give the puppy. Don’t ever give it chunks of food that have any size to it as it may get stuck in their throat and they can choke to death. Ask your veterinarian to demonstrate what to do if they are choking.
Fresh water must ALWAYS be available to any dog, especially a young puppy. Filtered or distilled water is best. Wash the bowl and change their water daily. It is very important that the puppy gets as much water as they want. Therefore, it is best not to solely use a water bottle as it can limit their water intake.
Puppy potty training takes patience and consistency. Don’t give up! Keep in mind that puppies are unable to completely control their bowels until they are about four to six months old. You will have some success during the early months; however, you should expect accidents. To avoid difficult clean-ups, keep puppies supervised at all times, use a belly band, or keep them on an easy-to-clean surface such as tile when they are unsupervised, until you are certain that your pup is housebroken. Once you allow your pup to urinate in the house, he is likely to return to the same spot the next time he has to relieve himself.Housebreaking a puppy requires that you let him outside often to potty. We recommend that, at first, you let your pup outside every hour, if possible. If you are using bellybands with your dog, remove the band before letting him outside. Your puppy should always be encouraged to potty just before you retire for the night. Likewise, as soon as he wakes up in the morning, the first thing your pup will need to do is relieve himself. You should waste no time in taking him outside as soon as he awakes. When your pup hears you get up in the morning, it will be his signal to wake, so attend to him before going about your morning routine. Some pups may cry that they need to potty at the first sign of light, and if you want a dry floor or crate, it is usually necessary to immediately respond to their needs.Your pup will also have to relieve himself shortly after a meal, and will need to urinate more often during the summer when his water intake is higher. As soon as your pup finishes dinner, take him to his outdoor place to potty for several minutes until he relieves himself. At other times, you may notice your pup sniffing the floor for a suitable place to go. He may whimper or start to squat. Scoop him up immediately and place him outside. As with adult dog marking, the key to training your puppy not to wet in the house is to prevent him from leaving his urine scent in the house. Dogs, being creatures of habit, are enticed to mark in these same spots by the urine odor.If your puppy does wet in the house, clean any areas where your dog has urinated with a product made specifically to clean and deodorize dog urine. Products such as baking soda won’t break down the urine and thoroughly remove it from your carpet and furniture. Unless the urine is completely removed, your dog will recognize even the smallest scent that you can’t notice, and he will be drawn to re-wet the area. Another important part of puppy housetraining is to be proactive and prevent your dog’s opportunities to wet in the house. This will take time, effort, and patience on your part, but it will make the puppy housebreaking process move along much quicker and will pay in the long run.When housebreaking your puppy, the most important thing to remember is that your dog should be loose in the house only when you can watch him at all times. This means that if you are busy, your puppy should not be allowed to go into any room where you cannot watch him carefully, even for a few seconds. Puppies can wet quickly and without notice, and a few unsupervised “seconds” can lead to urine spots that you might not immediately notice. Each time your dog successfully marks in the house, it reinforces this behavior and his desire to do so.If your puppy does have an accident in the house, scold him only if you catch him in the act. If you scold him even a minute or two after he has made a mess it will confuse him because he will not know why he is being scolded. If, however, you catch him in the act of relieving himself in the house, pick him up and say “No” in a firm voice. Do not yell. Immediately take him to the outside area where you want him to relieve himself or to his indoor potty or pee pad . Never rub his nose in the mess or hit him; this will cause him to fear you and will make future obedience training more difficult. Be sure to clean the soiled area with a product intended for housebreaking accidents.
Many puppy owners who can’t watch their dogs every minute use belly bands as a housebreaking aid to help control urine messes and train their dogs not to wet in the house. Belly bands comfortably wrap around your dog’s belly and a sanitary maxi pad is placed in the bottom of the band. When the dog tries to wet in the house, urine is absorbed by the maxi pad and carpet and furniture remain clean. Dogs cannot leave their urine and scent, thus eliminating soiled areas that would attract them to re-wet in the future. The bands also serve as a constant reminder to your dog not to wet in the house. Belly bands do not take the place of normal puppy housebreaking. You should still work at housebreaking your pup. Many dogs are reliably housebroken with the extra help of belly bands , keeping homes fresh, clean and urine-free.
If you are away from home during the day, your puppy should not be allowed to have unsupervised run of the house. If your pup is unsupervised and allowed to wet on carpet and furniture while you are away, it will be virtually impossible to reliably housebreak him. Ideally, when you are not home, you should keep your puppy in a suitable kennel or in one room that has an easy-to-clean flooring such as tile. Child gates or puppy gates can be used to block off the entrance to the rest of the house and keep your pup confined to the one room. If you have a doggy door, keep your puppy confined to a small area around the doggy door. You can also place a pee pad or housebreaking pad on the floor if your pup does not have access to the outdoors when you are away from home.
Puppy Housebreaking can be quickened if your pup sleeps in his crate. Dogs dislike sleeping in a soiled area, and your puppy will soon learn to wait until you let him out of his crate to do his business. Of course, it may take a few months before your puppy is able to hold his bowels all night. As he gets older, he will have fewer and fewer accidents. Expect this, and never scold him for accidentally soiling his area at night.
With your help, effort, patience and consistency, your puppy will eventually become housebroken.
CARE OF YOUR PUPPY
Small breed puppies must be monitored and watched carefully to make sure that they are eating and getting enough rest. Young, toy breed puppies can develop a low blood sugar condition due to overexcitement, overexertion, or injury and can very, very quickly become unconscious and even die without immediate treatment! If the puppy misses a meal, offer a tasty bite of lean meat or baby food (chicken or beef), scrambled egg, cottage cheese or goat’s milk just for the purpose of getting a little food in the stomach. If the puppy does not eat, is stressed by too much excitement, handling, or new experiences, it may result in a hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) attack. Prevention and treatment is simple.
The early signs of hypoglycemia: lethargy, sleepiness, a dazed look, then, as it progresses, a staggering or “drunken” gait, drooling, collapse and convulsions. If it is not treated, it continues into coma and ultimately death!
TREATMENT: IMMEDIATELY dap your finger into a jar of honey, jam or corn syrup and smear a small amount directly into the puppy’s mouth. Be careful as you don’t want to give so much that can cause chocking and too much “sugar” can shock the puppy’s system. A high calorie supplement such as Nutra-Cal or Nutra-Stat can also be given in as a preventative or in the early stages of hypoglycemia. In addition, Gator-Aid given slowly into the side of the mouth with a syringe will also help. Once they seem to be recovering in response to the treatment of honey or corn syrup, you should also prepare a mixture of the following: 2 Tbs. Gerber Baby Rice Cereal, 2 tsp. Gerber Strained Chicken Meat, 1 tsp. corn syrup. Add water to make it the consistency of pudding. Fill a large syringe or a baby medicine dropper with mixture and give it to the puppy by squeezing the mixture either on the tongue or between the cheek and gum. Give the puppy a chance to swallow and then give them more. Give approximately 12 cc and repeat every 4 hours. This will need to be done until they feel better and start to eat on their own.
If the puppy has reached advanced stages of hypoglycemia and has gone into the staggering state, it ABSOLUTELY must be taken to the veterinarian, even after it has been given sugar and has recovered. The reason for this is that once a puppy has had a serious drop in blood sugar, it can occur again with even less stress and the veterinarian can help prevent this. Be very vigilant while the puppy is still young (up to 6 months of age, depending upon their size)!
- You must regulate the amount of activity your puppy gets. Young, small breed puppies tire very easily and quickly, especially if they are allowed to romp freely about the house or are handled excessively. They need their rest just like an infant.
- A healthy puppy’s temperature is normally 101-102 degrees. Should a puppy exhibit signs of illness such as vomiting, diarrhea, runny eyes or nose, excessive panting or whining, dizziness, lethargy, etc. take them to the veterinarian. DO NOT WAIT! It does not take long for a puppy to become dehydrated.
- Some health-related issues can be treated with the following medicines: Cough, try one (1) cc Robitussin or other cough syrup. Diarrhea, try 1-2 cc Pepto Bismol or Kaopectate. G as pains, try 1 cc DiGel Liquid. NOTE: 1cc = 1/5 teaspoon. I use a syringe, without the needle, to measure and dispense medications.
6. Check daily for stuck stools as this can cause blockage disallowing the dog to eliminate. Keep the hair trimmed around the rectum to help this situation. This can cause serious problems and be very painful for the dog.
7. Take them to the veterinarian until they have received the complete series of puppy shots. Do not let the veterinarian give more than one shot per visit. These toy dogs are given the same amount of serum as the large breeds and too much at once can cause problems. It is important for their health that they have the proper protection. DO NOT put your puppy on the ground in public areas until their have received their full series of puppy shots.
8. Disease can kill a small dog five (5) times faster than a large dog. Large dogs can live with worms in their stomach longer because they have more blood. A toy dog has less than a pint of blood in their entire body.
9. Have a veterinarian check their teeth when the puppy is about six (6) months old. Puppies often retain their deciduous (puppy) teeth and they must be extracted by a veterinarian so that it doesn’t cause the adult teeth to become misaligned.
10. Do not allow small children to handle or hold the puppy without close supervision. They are very wiggly making them difficult to hold onto and they can quickly leap from your arms. Maltese can be injured quite easily even in a fall of only a couple of feet, especially onto a hard surface. Also they should NEVER be left unattended on top of a table, sofa, or a bed. DO NOT ENCOURAGE THEM TO LEAP ONTO OR OFF OF FURNITURE! Maltese are delicate, fine-boned dogs despite their boisterous nature and fearless personalities. As puppies mature, they will learn what they can and cannot do. Until then, you must protect them from themselves.
11. Be very careful and selective with the toys your puppy plays with. Rawhide toys are fine occasionally, but throw them away after they become too small. You must monitor your puppy whenever it plays with a latex toy that has an exposed squeaker as they can chock on the squeaker if they are able to remove it. You may choose to remove the squeakers yourself. Some infant toys are perfect.
12. Make sure your house has been puppy-proofed. Clean-up anything they can pick-up and chew. As tiny as they are, small objects will look large to them. Make sure they do not get in the habit of chewing electrical cords as this can be deadly. If you see them chewing, immediately check it out to see what it is they are chewing.
13. Don’t ever let them outside a secured area by themselves. They are very easy and tempting for someone to steal. More importantly, large dogs can kill them in an instant. Poisonous frogs, snakes, and spiders have also been known to kill them and coyotes and hawks have been known to carry them off.
14. If you choose to sleep with your puppy, be extremely careful not to accidentally and unknowingly lie on top of them and possibly suffocate them or allow them to fall or jump off of the bed.
15. Pet Proofing your Home and Yard
The four (4) most important factors in raising your puppy are:
IT MUST EAT
IT MUST REST
IT MUST BE KEPT WARM & DRY
IT MUST BE LOVED
Please don’t hesitate to contact me if ever you have any questions or concerns about your puppy no matter how small. I am available to assist you 24/7. I am also grateful for you to keep in touch letting me know how everything is going and to send me an occasional photo.